Based on historical documents, the area was an important population centre, called Sepaneh and Espadana by historians contemporary to Jesus Christ.
The apex of Isfahan importance was during the Safavid era.
The province extends to Yazd and South Khorasan provinces to the east; Seman, Qom and Markazi to the north; Lorestan and Charmahal to the west. Fars and Kohgiluyeh provinces are to the south of this province.
The province is an industrial centre for steel production and is one of the most important handicraft centres in Iran.
Zayanderud river, one of the most important rivers in central Iran ends in this province.
Isfahan province has dry weather with very cold winters and warm summers. The mountainous regions of the province have relatively temperate weather.