The history of this province is mostly influenced by the Elamite civilization according to the archeological findings in this area.
Ilam province has a border with Iraq on its west. Kermanshah province lies to its north, Khuzestan to its south and Lorestan to its east. The province has a large population of nomadic tribes.
The northern and northern-east parts of the province are mountainous, while the southern and western areas are low lands.
Ilam province covers three climate zones : The mountainous area in the north and north-east with cold weather and long winters. The middle areas with temperate weather and the low lands in the west and south with warm weather.