The Salghurids of Fars (also known as Atabegs of Fars), were a dynasty of Turkmen origin that ruled Fars, first as vassals of the Seljuqs then for the Khwarazm Shahs in the 13th century. The Salghurids was established by Sunqur in 1148, who had profited from the rebellions during the reign of Seljuq sultan Mas’ud b. Muhammad. Later the Salghurids were able to solidify their position in southern Persia to the point of campaigning against Kurds and involving themselves in the succession of the Kirman Seljuqs, holding Seljuq sultan Malik-Shah III’s son Mahmud as a possible claimant to the Seljuq throne. They captured Isfahan in 1203-4 and later occupied Bahrain taken from the Uyunid dynasty in 1235.
Under Sa’d I b. Zangi, the Salghurids experienced significant prosperity, which was marred by his acknowledging the Khwarazm Shahs as his overlord. Saadi Shirazi, the Persian poet, dedicated his Bostan and Gulistan to Sa’d I and Sa’d II. Following Sa’d I’s death, his brother Zangi b. Mawdud took power in 1161. Dekele/Tekele followed his father, Zangi, only after eliminating Sonqur’s son Toghril.
During the 13th century, the Salghurids patronized a cultural and intellectual atmosphere which included, Kadi al-Baydawi, Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, Saadi Shirazi and the historian Wassaf.
During the closing years of Aku Bakr and Sa’d II, Fars fell under the dominion of Mongol empire and later the Ilkhanate of Hulegu. Under the Mongols, Abu Bakr was given the title of Qutlugh Khan. Later Salghurids were powerless figureheads until the daughter of Sa’d II, Abish Khatun was given the title of Atabegate of Fars. She was the sole ruler of Fars for one year whereupon she married, Mengu Temur, the eleventh son of Hulegu. Following their deaths, Fars was ruled directly by the Ilkhanate.
List of Atabegs
- Sunqur b. Mawdud (1148–1161)
- Zangi b. Mawdud (1161–1178)
- Degele/Tekele b. Zangi (1178–1198)
- Sa’d I b. Zangi (1198–1226)
- Qutlugh Khan Abu Bakr b. Sa’d I (1226–1260)
- Sa’d II b. Qutlugh Khan (1260–1262)
- Muhammad Shah b. Salghur Shah b. Sa’d I (1262–1263)
- Seljuq Shah b. Salghur Shah (1263)
- Abish Khatun b. Sa’d II (1263)
- Abish Khatun w/ Mengu Temur b. Hulegu (1264–1282)