The Ghurids or Ghorids were a dynasty of Iranian descent from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain. The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam from Buddhism, after the conquest of Ghor by the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1011. The dynasty overthrew the Ghaznavid Empire in 1186 when Sultan Mu’izz ad-Din Muhammad of Ghor conquered the last Ghaznavid capital of Lahore.
At their zenith, the Ghurid empire encompassed Khorasan in the west and reached northern India as far as Bengal in the east. Their first capital was Firozkoh in Mandesh, Ghor, which was later replaced by Herat, and finally Ghazna. The Ghurids were patrons of Persian culture and heritage.
Abu Ali ibn Muhammad (reigned 1011–1035) was the first Muslim king of the Ghurid dynasty to construct mosques and Islamic schools in Ghor.
The Ghurids were succeeded in Khorasan and Persia by the Khwarazmian dynasty, and in northern India by the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
Rulers of Ghurid Dynasty
- Amir Suri (9th Century)
- Muhammad ibn Suri (1007 – 1011)
- Abu Ali ibn Muhammad (1011 – 1035)
- Abbas ibn Shith (1035 – 1060)
- Muhammad ibn Abbas (1060 – 1080)
- Qutb al-din Hasan (1080 – 1100)
- Izz al-Din Husayn (1100 – 1146)
- Sayf al-Din Suri (1146 – 1149)
- Baha al-Din Sam I (1149)
- Ala al-Din Husayn (1149 – 1161)
- Sayf al-Din Muhammad (1161 – 1163)
- Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad (1163 – 1203)
- Mu’izz al-Din Muhammad (1172 – 1206)
- Ghiyath al-Din Mahmud (1206 – 1212)
- Baha al-Din Sam III (1212 – 1213)
- Ala al-Din Atsiz (1213 – 1214)
- Ala al-Din Ali (1214 – 1215)