MONGOL RULERS OF IRAN (1219-1353)
1201-1274 : The life of Nasir al-Din Tusi, the great Persian astronomer and philosopher
1206 : Ghenghis Khan begins his attempt at world conquest
1207-1273 : The life of Jala al-Din Mohammad Rumi, poet and founder of Mowlavi order of whirling dervishes
1218-1227 : Genghis Khan’s invasion of Persia
1256-1265 : Hulagi Khan defeats the Ismailites, ends the Abbasid caliphare, and inaugurates the Ilkhanid dynasy
1265 : The first English Parliament is formally convened
1281-1324 : The rule of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Turkish state (The traditional date for its foundatin is 1290)
c. 1300-1700 : The Renaissance period in Europe
1320-1389 : The life of Hafez, the greatest Persian lyric poet
1325-1355 : The journey of Ibn Batutta, the Moorish traveler and scholar
1336-1504 : The rule of Timur (Tamerlane, so called beayse of his lame leg), the Tatar conquere
1337-1453 : Hundred Years’ War between England and France
1340-1393 : Mozaffarid dynasty in southern Iran
Mongol occupation was disastrous to Iran. Numerous cities were razed, and a large number of people (particularly males) were killed. The Kharazm-Shahs could not op-pose the Mongol hordes led by Genghis Khan. The last Kharazm-Shahs’ prince, Jalal al-Din, tried to restore the empire but failed to unite the Iranian regions, although by that time Genghis Khan, who had withdrawn to Mongolia, was dead. Iran was left divided between Mongol agents and local adventurers, both of whom profited from the lack of order. A second Mongol invasion began when Genghis Khan’s grandson Hulagu Khan destroyed the Ismailite fortress at Alamut. He then besieged Baghdad, where he also ordered the execution of the last Abbasid caliph. Hulagu hoped to consoli-date Mongol rule over western Asia and to extend the Mongol Empire as far as the Mediterranean. He made Iran his base, but the Mamluks of Egypt (1250-1517) pre-vented him and his successors from achieving their im-perial goal. Instead, a Mongol dynasty, the II-Khanids, or “Deputy Khans” to the Great Khan in China, was estab-lished in Iran to attempt repair of the damage of the first Mongol invasion. They made Azerbaijan their center and chose Maragheh as the first capital until Sultaniyeh was built early in the 14th century. A later Mongol ruler, Ghazan Khan, and his famous Iranian vizier of Jewish de-scent, Rashid al-Din Fazlollah, brought Iran a partial revival. Ghazan Khan was the first Mongol ruler to adopt Islam, His successor to the throne was Oljeitu. Oljeitu changed his religious affiliations several times. A great-grandson of Hulagu, founder of the II-Khanid dynasty, Oljeitu was baptized a Christian and given the name Nicholas by his mother. As a youth, he adhered to shamanism but was later, apparently under the influence of one of his wives, converted to Sunnite Islam, taking the name Mohammad Khodabandeh (“Lord’s Slave”). During the winter of 1307-1308, a bitter religious feud ensued between the adherents of the Hanafi and Shafii schools of Sunnite Islamic law. This so disgusted Oljeitu that he considered converting back to shamanism, but that course proved politi-cally impossible. Greatly influenced by the Shiite theologian, Ibn al-Mutahhar al-Hilli, he came to embrace the Shiite religion. On his return from a visit to the tomb of Imam All in Iraq, he proclaimed Shiite Islam to be the state religion. Oljeitu’s conversion gave rise to great unrest, and civil war was imminent when he died in 1316. His son and successor, Abu Said, reconverted to Sunnite Islam and averted war, but during his reign factional disputes and internal disturbances became rampant.
The II-Khanid line was interrupted by the death of Abu Said, who died without leaving an heir, and Iran again lapsed into petty dynasties — the Jalayirids, Injuids, and Mozaffarids.